Air pollution20 Februari 2010 pukul 2:40 PM | Ditulis dalam materi | 5 Komentar
The normal air composition in the troposphere layer can change at a certain time, as the effect of human life activities. If the effect has been reach a given step so that the change for air properties and causing the other effect, then the condition air is called in pollution. Air pollution can be caused by the increase of one and more of air components exceeding “the threshold value” (NAB) or caused by the existence of foreign particles which are dispersed in air.
The increase of one or more of air components can cause air pollution when the air component is exceed the threshold value is a highest content of a given substance which can be endured by someone without aberration (healthy nuisance) in the contact time during 40 hours work in a week. Comprehend the dangerous of the increase of a given component (gas) content in the air. Pay attention the following explanation about air component which can acts as air pollutant, among other are carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxide of nitrogen, oxide of sulfur, and hydrocarbon gases.
a Carbon Monoxide
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, tasteless toxic gas produced from incomplete burning of carbon-containing compounds, especially fossil fuels, such as coals, petroleum, and natural gas.
At normal condition, CO gas content in the air is about 0.1 ppm. However, because of the existence of incomplete burning from organic compounds, especially fossil fuels in auto mobile engine, then the CO content in the air undergoes increase. If the increase of this CO gas content is exceed the threshold value, is of 30 ppm, then this matter can cause a serious threat for humans and other organism.
Because carbon monoxide is odorless, hence it is an extremely harmful poison. It produce symptom of headache, nausea, or fatigue. This can be followed by unconsciousness. It is because carbon monoxide can intrude oxygen circulatory system in our body.
In red blood cells there are hemoglobin’s (Hb). Hemoglobin in blood functions attach oxygen (O2) which enter to body (lung) for circulated to entire the body. If the carbon monoxide enter to the body through respiration, then this substance is easier attach by hemoglobin than oxygen gas, so that the body cells lose oxygen and the body undergoes mentioned symptom.
If we inhale air containing CO gas more than 30 ppm at a long enough time, then this case will cause the body become in fatigue. Air with CO gas content more than 100 ppm can cause headache, CO gas content more than 250 ppm can cause poisoned and unconsciousness symptoms, and CO gas content more than 750 ppm can cause mortality. The regions with high content of CO gas are usually in town, because the numbers of automobile vehicle in the town are plenty.
b Carbon Dioxide
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of air component that colorless, odorless, and easy to dissolve into water. At normal condition, CO2 gas content in the air is about 330 ppm. Naturally CO2 gas is obtained from combustion of organic compounds, fermentation, organism respiration, and volcanic eruption. Actually, CO2 gas in the air give benefit for humans and other living things. This is because CO2 gas can retain the earth temperature in order to stay in worm in the night. Beside that, CO2 gas is used by green plant for photosynthesis processes that product are also used by humans and other living things, especially animals.
Basically, the increase of the CO2 gas content in the air is caused by unrestrained human activities, such as fuels combustion in automobile engines and industries. In this case, the increase of the CO2 gas content can cause the negative effects for us and other living things. Beside that the increase also causes the negative effects for the environments.
The main problem caused by the increase of the CO2 gas content in air is the increase of earth temperature drastically, known as global warming. The global warming finally can stimulate the ice melting on earth’s poles, so that the earth’s surface will be cover by the water. It is because, the CO2 gas is one of greenhouse gases which can isolate heat on a certain region in the earth’s surface. Energy from sun in the form of heat reaching earth’s surface, some is absorbed and another is reflected back in the form of infrared wave radiation to the atmosphere. The existence of greenhouse gases, including CO2 gas causes the infrared wave is reflected back to the atmosphere. So that as if heat from the sun is trapped in the region between earth’s surface and greenhouse gases molecules in the atmosphere. This process is known as the greenhouse effect.
At normally condition, greenhouse effect is very useful, but if the content of CO2 gas and other greenhouse gases, such as methane, oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulfur, and CFC exceed the threshold value, then this case cause the greater of infrared wave radiation which is trapped between earth’s surface and greenhouse gases particles and finally the global warming is happened.
To solve this global warming problem, beside managing industries activities, the other effort is by maintaining the forest preservation. It is because in the forest there are thousand green plants requiring CO2 gas for photosynthesis process.
c Oxides of Nitrogen
Oxides of nitrogen are compounds containing nitrogen (N) and oxygen elements (O). For example are nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Oxides of nitrogen gases in the air are produced from combustion of automobile engine fuels at high temperature. Forest fires, thunderbolt, and other.
Oxides of nitrogen which can cause air pollution are NO and NO2 gases. NO gas can react with oxygen to form NO2 gas which more harmful.
Nitrogen dioxide is a highly poisonous brown gas. If NO2 is inhaled through respiration it can cause cancer or mortality. Beside that, in daylight NO2 gas will dissociate into NO gas and one oxygen atom (O), then the oxygen atom react with oxygen molecules to form ozone (O3). The existence of ozone in the air can cause the healthy hindrance, such as influencing the growth, bronchitis, eyes irritation, and other. Beside that can also cause the damage on the devices made from rubber, such as tire.
The mixture of NO2 with ozone and other gases in the air can cause smog which disturb human healthy. Beside that, NO2 gas can also disturb the photosynthesis process on the plant and causing corrosion on metallic materials.
d Oxides of Sulfur
Oxides of sulfur are compounds containing sulfur and oxygen, such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO3).
Generally, SO2 is produced from combustion of petroleum and coal containing sulfur element and from manufacture of metals using sulfide ores. The existence of SO2 gas with high content in the air, when it is inhaled can cause the diseases on respiratory organs, such as lung and throat.
SO2 gas can reacts with oxygen to form SO3, which is an oxide of acid. When SO3 reacts with water it will form sulfuric acid (H2SO4) compound which is corrosive. Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) soluble in rainwater, so that the existence of oxides of sulfur can cause the acid rain phenomenon. Acid rain can pollute water and finally it will cause poisoned effects for humans, animals, and plants. Beside that the acid rain can cause the damage on metals and other materials.
e Hydrocarbon Compounds
Several of hydrocarbon compound in the form of gas, such as methane and acetylene can cause the pollution effects which serious enough for human. The hydrocarbon compounds excessively produced from manufacture of coal and petroleum. Methane gas can push oxygen to the earth’s surface. Finally it can cause inadequate oxygen disease (anoxia).