27 Februari 2010 pukul 5:17 PM | Ditulis dalam materi | 15 Komentar

Some Definition

Organic chemistry is the science of carbon compounds, which includes the synthesis of these compounds and the study of the reactions of these compounds.
Organic compounds are compounds which contain carbon (with the exception of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbonates, carbides, and some of cyanides).

Proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, hormones, cellulose, anesthetics, antibiotics, and enzymes are some examples of organic compounds.

Carbon Bonding

  • Carbon atoms can unite with one another by sharing one or more pairs of electron to form chain or cyclic molecules.
  • Carbon atoms with four valence electrons can form four covalent bonds.


Hydrocarbons are compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen. Types of hydrocarbon:

  1. Alkanes CnH2n+2
  2. Cycloalkanes CnH2n+2-2y ; where y is the number of rings.
  3. Alkenes CnH2n
  4. Alkynes CnH2n-2
  5. Benzene (aromatic) hydrocarbon

Types of Hybridization for Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbon Hybridization of the carbon
Alkane Sp3
Alkene Sp2
Alkyne Sp


General formula CnH2n+2

CH4 methane

C2H6 ethane

C3H8 propane

C4H10 butane

C5H12 pentane

C6H14 hexane

C7H16 heptane

C8H18 octane

C9H20 nonane

C10H22 dekane


General formula CnH2n+2-2y

C3H6 cyclopropane

C4H8 cyclobutane

C5H10 cyclopentane

C6H12 cyclohexane


General formula CnH2n

C2H4 ethane (ethylene)

C3H4 propene (propylene)

C4H8 butene

C5H10 pentene


General formula

C2H2 ethyne (acetylene)

C3H4 propyne

C4H6 butyne

C5H10 pentyne

Structural formulas of alkanes

Structural formulas of alkenes and alkynes



Resonance is a result of the fact that the correct bonding in a molecule is a hybrid (mixture) of all the possible electron structures which can be written.

Resonance energy is the energy required to change a mole of hybrid molecules to a mole of molecules having the single, conventional valence-bond formula.

ΔH = 37 kcal/mole

Benzene, toluene, and other aromatics


Isomers are compounds which have the same molecular formulas, but different structural formulas.

Isomeric compounds can differ both chemically and physically. They can have difference in melting points, boiling points, refractive index, and chemical activity.


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