ORGANIC CHEMISTRY: THE HYDROCARBON

27 Februari 2010 pukul 5:17 PM | Ditulis dalam materi | 15 Komentar
Tag:

Some Definition

Organic chemistry is the science of carbon compounds, which includes the synthesis of these compounds and the study of the reactions of these compounds.
Organic compounds are compounds which contain carbon (with the exception of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbonates, carbides, and some of cyanides).

Proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, hormones, cellulose, anesthetics, antibiotics, and enzymes are some examples of organic compounds.

Carbon Bonding

  • Carbon atoms can unite with one another by sharing one or more pairs of electron to form chain or cyclic molecules.
  • Carbon atoms with four valence electrons can form four covalent bonds.

Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons are compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen. Types of hydrocarbon:

  1. Alkanes CnH2n+2
  2. Cycloalkanes CnH2n+2-2y ; where y is the number of rings.
  3. Alkenes CnH2n
  4. Alkynes CnH2n-2
  5. Benzene (aromatic) hydrocarbon

Types of Hybridization for Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbon Hybridization of the carbon
Alkane Sp3
Alkene Sp2
Alkyne Sp

Alkanes

General formula CnH2n+2

CH4 methane

C2H6 ethane

C3H8 propane

C4H10 butane

C5H12 pentane

C6H14 hexane

C7H16 heptane

C8H18 octane

C9H20 nonane

C10H22 dekane

Cycloalkanes

General formula CnH2n+2-2y

C3H6 cyclopropane

C4H8 cyclobutane

C5H10 cyclopentane

C6H12 cyclohexane

Alkenes

General formula CnH2n

C2H4 ethane (ethylene)

C3H4 propene (propylene)

C4H8 butene

C5H10 pentene

Alkynes

General formula

C2H2 ethyne (acetylene)

C3H4 propyne

C4H6 butyne

C5H10 pentyne

Structural formulas of alkanes


Structural formulas of alkenes and alkynes


Benzene


Resonance

Resonance is a result of the fact that the correct bonding in a molecule is a hybrid (mixture) of all the possible electron structures which can be written.

Resonance energy is the energy required to change a mole of hybrid molecules to a mole of molecules having the single, conventional valence-bond formula.

ΔH = 37 kcal/mole

Benzene, toluene, and other aromatics



Isomerism


Isomers are compounds which have the same molecular formulas, but different structural formulas.

Isomeric compounds can differ both chemically and physically. They can have difference in melting points, boiling points, refractive index, and chemical activity.

15 Komentar »

RSS feed for comments on this post. TrackBack URI

  1. I think what you posted was actually very reasonable. However, what about this?
    what if you composed a catchier post title? I ain’t saying your content isn’t good.

    , however suppose you added a title that grabbed people’s attention? I mean ORGANIC CHEMISTRY: THE HYDROCARBON chuiyin’s blogz is kinda boring. You might glance at Yahoo’s front page
    and see how they create news titles to get viewers to open the links.
    You might add a video or a related pic or two to grab readers interested about what you’ve written. In my opinion, it could make your posts a little bit more interesting.

  2. After looking at a number of the articles on your site, I truly
    like your technique of blogging. I saved as a favorite it
    to my bookmark webpage list and will be checking back in the near future.
    Take a look at my web site as well and let me
    know how you feel.

  3. We’re a group of volunteers and starting a new scheme in our community. Your website offered us with helpful info to work on. You’ve done a formidable activity and
    our entire neighborhood might be thankful to you.

  4. Way cool! Some extremely valid points! I appreciate you writing this write-up plus the rest
    of the site is really good.

  5. Having read this I thought it was very informative. I appreciate you
    spending some time and energy to put this informative article together.
    I once again find myself spending a significant amount of time both
    reading and leaving comments. But so what, it was still worthwhile!

  6. It’s appropriate time to make some plans for the future and it’s time to be happy.
    I have read this post and if I could I want to suggest you few interesting things or tips.
    Maybe you could write next articles referring
    to this article. I wish to read even more things about it!

  7. I think that is one of the most important information for me.
    And i’m glad studying your article. However wanna commentary on some basic things, The web site style is wonderful, the articles is in point of fact excellent : D. Just right activity, cheers

  8. This page definitely has all the information I wanted about this subject and
    didn’t know who to ask.

  9. I comment each time I like a post on a site or I have something to contribute to the conversation.

    Usually it is triggered by the sincerness displayed in the post I browsed.
    And on this post ORGANIC CHEMISTRY: THE HYDROCARBON chuiyin’s blogz. I was moved enough to post a commenta response🙂 I actually do have a couple of questions for you if you usually do not mind. Could it be just me or do a few of these remarks look as if they are written by brain dead people?😛 And, if you are writing on other online social sites, I’d like to keep up with you.
    Could you make a list all of your social sites like
    your twitter feed, Facebook page or linkedin profile?

  10. That is the suitable blog for anybody who desires to search out out
    about this topic. You realize a lot its nearly laborious to argue with you (not that
    I truly would need…HaHa). You undoubtedly put a brand new spin on a subject
    thats been written about for years. Nice stuff, simply great!

  11. I like what you guys tend to be up too. This type of clever work and coverage!
    Keep up the very good works guys I’ve added you guys to my blogroll.

  12. Hello, i feel that i noticed you visited my blog so i got here to return
    the choose?.I am trying to find things to enhance my site!
    I suppose its ok to use a few of your ideas!!

  13. I quite like reading through an article that can make people think.
    Also, many thanks for permitting me to comment!

  14. naturally like your website but you need to take a look at the spelling on several of your posts.
    A number of them are rife with spelling problems and I
    in finding it very bothersome to inform the truth nevertheless I will definitely come again again.

  15. Hey There. I found your blog using msn. This is a
    very well written article. I’ll be sure to bookmark it and return to read more of your useful information. Thanks for
    the post. I will definitely comeback.


Tinggalkan Balasan

Isikan data di bawah atau klik salah satu ikon untuk log in:

Logo WordPress.com

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Logout / Ubah )

Gambar Twitter

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Facebook

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Google+

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Logout / Ubah )

Connecting to %s

Blog di WordPress.com.
Entries dan komentar feeds.

%d blogger menyukai ini: